R. Alta Charo
Warren P. Knowles Professor of Law and Bioethics
B.A., Biology, Harvard University, 1979
J.D., Columbia University School of Law, 1982
R. Alta Charo is the Warren P. Knowles Professor of Law and Bioethics at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. In the past, she also has served on the faculty of the UW Masters in Biotechnology Studies program and the Dept. of Medical History and Bioethics at the School of Medicine & Public Health.
For the 2019-2020 academic year, she is on leave while a Berggruen fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University.
Alta Charo (B.A. biology, Harvard 1979; J.D. Columbia, 1982) is an elected member (2004) of the World Technology Network and (2005) the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. And in 2006 she was elected to membership in the National Academies' Institute of Medicine (IOM) (now known as the National Academy of Medicine). In 2013 she was awarded the Adam Yarmolinsky Medal for her service to the IOM.
Professor Charo served on President Obama's transition team, where she was a member of the HHS review team, focusing her attention particularly on transition issues related to NIH, FDA, bioethics, stem cell policy, and women's reproductive health. She was on leave 2009-2011 to serve as a senior policy advisor on emerging technology issues in the Office of the Commissioner at the US Food & Drug Administration.
Professor Charo offers courses on public health law, bioethics, biotechnology law, food & drug law, reproductive rights, stem cell policy, torts, and legislative drafting. In addition, she has served on the UW Hospital clinical ethics committee, the University's Institutional Review Board for the protection of human subjects in medical research, and the University's Bioethics Advisory Committee. She has been a visiting lecturer at law and medical schools in Argentina, Australia, Canada, China, Cuba, France, Germany, and New Zealand. In 2006, she was a visiting professor of law at the University of California -- Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall).
Prior to her arrival at UW in 1989, Professor Charo served as Associate Director of the Legislative Drafting Research Fund of Columbia University (1982-1985); Fulbright Junior Lecturer in American Law at the Sorbonne in Paris (1985-1986); legal analyst for the Biological Applications Program of the congressional Office of Technology Assessment (1986-88); and American Association for the Advancement of Science Diplomacy Fellow for the Policy Development Division of the Office of Population at the U.S. Agency for International Development.
Professor Charo has authored or contributed to over 100 articles, book chapters and government reports on law and policy related to environmental protection, reproductive health, new reproductive technologies, medical genetics, stem cell research, science funding, and research ethics. She has served as a member of the boards of the Alan Guttmacher Institute and the Foundation for Genetic Medicine, the National Medical Advisory Committee of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, and the program board of amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research. She has also been on the boards of the Society for the Advancement of Women's Health and the former American Association of Bioethics, as well as the ethics advisory board of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In addition, she has served as a consultant to the National Academy of Science's Institute of Medicine and the former NIH Office of Protection from Research Risks.
Charo has also served on several expert advisory boards of organizations with an interest in stem cell research, including CuresNow, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the International Society for Stem Cell Research and WiCell, as well as on the advisory board to the Wisconsin Stem Cell Research Program. From 2005-2009 she was a member of the ethics standards working group of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. Also in 2005, she helped to draft the National Academies' Guidelines for Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and in 2006 she was appointed to co-chair the National Academies' Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee. Later she chaired a workshop on the growing problem of misleading advertising and patient endangerment by unscrupulous clinics purporting to offer stem cell therapy.
Charo's advisory committee service for the federal government includes the 1994 NIH Human Embryo Research Panel, and (1996-2001) President Clinton's National Bioethics Advisory Commission where she participated in drafting its reports on "Cloning Human Beings"(1997); "Research Involving Persons with Mental Disorders that May Affect Decisionmaking Capacity"(1998); "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical Issues and Policy Guidance"(1999); "Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research"(1999); "Ethical and Policy Issues in International Research: Clinical Trials in Developing Countries" (2001); and "Ethical and Policy Issues in Research Involving Human Participants" (2001).
At the National Academies, Professor Charo is a member of the IOM Council, the Board on Health Sciences Policy, and the Committee on Science, Technology and Law. From 2001-2008 she was a member of the Board on Life Sciences. She served as its liaison to the Committee on Research Standards and Practices to Prevent Destructive Applications of Biotechnology and co-chaired its committee to develop national voluntary guidelines for stem cell research. She also served from 2006 to 2013 as a member of the Institute of Medicine's Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice as well as its Committee on Smallpox Vaccination Program Implementation and its committee to review the FDA and the U.S. national system for the assurance of drug safety.
Professor Charo also has completed service as a member of a working group of the NIH Council of Councils, reviewing the use of chimpanzees in NIH-funded research (PDF), an IOM committee reviewing the current pediatric vaccine schedule, an NAS committee updating the code of responsible conduct of science, an IOM committee on the use of mitochondrial replacement techniques, and on the advisory council for the NIH National Center for the Advancement of Translational Sciences.
From 2015 - 2017 she was a member of the National Academies' Human Gene Editing Initiative and co-chaired its committee charged with making recommendations on the use of gene-editing for both somatic and germline (heritable) changes in humans. She also was co-founder and then co-chair of the NAS/NAM Forum on Regenerative Medicine, served on the Program Board of the Greenwall Foundation and was a witness for the congressional panel looking at the practice of fetal tissue research. At present she is a member of the World Health Organization's expert advisory committee on global governance of genome editing.
Ms. Charo was born in Brooklyn, NY. She is fond of poker, foreign language study, cats, home renovation, Harry Potter books, old movies, roller coasters, salsa music, Jane Austen novels and Star Trek.
Selected publications are available at: http://ssrn.com/author=549738
Her email signature lines have included, from time to time, the following:
To the wrongs that need resistance, To the right that needs assistance, To the future in the distance, Give yourselves.
-- Carrie Chapman Catt (1859 " 1947)
Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.
-- Martin Luther King Jr. (1929 - 1968)
Aim above morality. Be not simply good, be good for something.
--Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862)
Action indeed is the sole medium of expression for ethics.
-- Jane Addams (1860 - 1935)
Always do right -- this will gratify some and astonish the rest.
-- Mark Twain (1835 - 1910)
Scholarship & Publications
- Biotechnology policy
- Emerging technology policy
- Drug safety
- Medical Research
- Reproductive rights
Alta Charo was appointed to the National Academy of Medicine's new Standing Committee on Emerging Infectious Diseases, which is tasked with rapid response to Health & Human Services and White House questions, and with looking into responses to future threats. Charo co-chairs the working group looking at issues in which science, law and ethics converge, such as how to responsibly open workplaces, how to reduce racial disparities in outcomes or overall how to better structure the public health system.
Alta Charo gave a panel presentation on the ethics of using untested drug treatments for the National Academies of Medicine webinar series, "COVID-19 Conversations: Emerging Evidence on Spread and Treatment." Watch the full webinar.
Alta Charo has been named to the newly formed National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Ethical, Legal and Regulatory Issues Associated with Neural Chimeras and Organoids.
Alta Charo has been appointed to the COVID-19 ethics advisory committee for the University of Nebraska Medical Center. The committee will convene weekly around urgent consultative needs and thematic issues, such as examining resource allocation, health care workers, institutional ethics and interagency impact on decision-making. UNMC is one of the few institutions that have received repatriated Americans for quarantine and isolation relating to the outbreak.
Alta Charo was keynote speaker for "Cell Symposia: Gene- and Cell-Based Therapies: CRISPR, Stem Cells, and Beyond," held in San Francisco in March 2020. She spoke on the global governance of genome editing.
Alta Charo has been appointed to the National Academy of Medicine's newly established Committee on Emerging Science, Technology, and Innovation in health medicine (CESTI). The committee will bring together experts in diverse fields to assess the landscape of emerging scientific advances and technologies in health and medicine and address their potential societal, ethical, legal and workforce implications.
Alta Charo's article, "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad (Genome Editing) Wolf?", was published in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, as part of a special February 2020 issue on genome editing.
Alta Charo presented "Rogues and Regulation," a talk on global governance options for advances in genetic medicine, for the Grand Rounds series at the University of California, San Francisco Medical School. She also presented the talk at Chan Zuckerberg BioHub.
Alta Charo's article, "A Professional Standard for Informed Consent for Stem Cell Therapies," was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association on November 5, 2019.
Alta Charo gave the plenary presentation at the annual meeting of the American Gynecological and Obstetrical Society in Chicago. Her talk focused on public control and governance of science.
In September, Alta Charo presented "Governance Options for the Life Sciences" before the National Academies' Committee on Developing a Research Agenda and Research Governance Approaches for Climate Intervention Strategies that Reflect Sunlight to Cool the Earth.
Alta Charo's article, "A Professional Standard for Informed Consent for Stem Cell Therapies" (co-authored with Jeremy Sugarman and Roger Barker), appears in the August 12 online edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Alta Charo's article, "Human Organoids: A New Dimension in Cell Biology," appeared in Molecular Biology of the Cell in April. Human organoid cultures provide the potential to study disease processes with the same scrutiny and depth of analysis customary for research with nonhuman model organisms. This article includes guidelines for reproducibility, culturing, sharing of patient materials, patient consent, training and communication with the public.
Alta Charo spoke at a Nuclear Threat Initiative meeting that convened in London in April, as part of her work as a member of the "Biosecurity Innovation and Risk Reduction Initiative." Charo's presentation focused on the role funders and journals can play in reducing the risk that biotechnology research can result in biohazards or be turned into a bioterrorism tool.
News & Media
Friday, Jun 12, 2020Overturning federal abortion law would criminalize the procedure in Wisconsin, says Alta Charo
Thursday, May 21, 2020'Human challenge studies' to test COVID-19 vaccines should be a last resort, says Alta Charo
Monday, May 18, 2020Re-opening ethically: Alta Charo discusses legal strategies for keeping workplaces safe
Friday, May 15, 2020How can states ethically manage COVID-19 drug shortages? Alta Charo discusses
Tuesday, Apr 14, 2020Human Nature, the CRISPR documentary featuring Alta Charo, is available to stream
Tuesday, Apr 7, 2020Alta Charo: How to protect doctors compelled to ration COVID-19 care from lawsuits
Friday, Mar 27, 2020Alta Charo discusses need for rationiong medical resources to confront COVID-19 pandemic
The Washington Post
Wednesday, Mar 25, 2020Public health and patient privacy during the COVID-19 pandemic; Alta Charo weighs in
Wisconsin Public Radio
Monday, Mar 9, 2020Alta Charo discusses FDA's 'Emergency Use Authorization' for medical treatments under Obama
Thursday, Jan 23, 2020Alta Charo discusses strategies for a global governance over genome editing
Wednesday, Jan 8, 2020Alta Charo discusses the gene drive dilemma: We can alter entire species, but should we?
The New York Times
Thursday, Jan 2, 2020Chinese scientist who claimed to create gene-edited babies sentenced to prison; Alta Charo responds
Wednesday, Dec 11, 2019Gene surgeons aim to repair fetal problems before they start; Alta Charo comments
The Mercury News
Monday, Nov 11, 2019Alta Charo appears in Human Nature, a documentary about CRISPR
Friday, Aug 2, 2019Alta Charo wins Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences fellowship